Spatial Navigation Is Distinctively Impaired in Persistent Postural Perceptual Dizziness
Frontiers in Neurology: Neuro-otology
Objective: To determine whether performance in a virtual spatial navigational task is poorer in persistent postural perceptual dizziness (PPPD) patients than in healthy volunteers and patients suffering other vestibular disorders.
Methods: Subjects were asked to perform three virtual Morris water maze spatial navigational tasks: (i) with a visible target, (ii) then with an invisible target and a fixed starting position, and finally (iii) with an invisible target and random initial position. Data were analyzed using the cumulative search error (CSE) index.
Results: While all subjects performed equally well with a visible target, the patients with PPPD (n = 19) performed poorer (p < 0.004) in the invisible target/navigationally demanding tasks (CSE median of 8) than did the healthy controls (n = 18; CSE: 3) and vestibular controls (n = 19; CSE: 4). Navigational performance in the most challenging setting allowed us to discriminate PPPD patients from controls with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.83 (sensitivity 78.1%; specificity 83.3%). PPPD patients manifested more chaotic and disorganized search strategies, with more dispersion in the navigational pool than those of the non-PPPD groups (standard distance deviation of 0.97 vs. 0.46 in vestibular controls and 0.20 in healthy controls; p < 0.001).
Conclusions: While all patients suffering a vestibular disorder had poorer navigational abilities than healthy controls did, patients with PPPD showed the worst performance, to the point that this variable allowed the discrimination of PPPD from non-PPPD patients. This distinct impairment in spatial navigation abilities offers new insights into PPPD pathophysiology and may also represent a new biomarker for diagnosing this entity.
Tinnitus: Una patología cerebral
Revista Chilena de Otorrinolaringología y cirugía de cabeza y cuello
El tinnitus es un síntoma caracterizado por la percepción de un sonido en ausencia de un estímulo externo. Si bien su fisiopatología puede involucrar una alteración a nivel del funcionamiento del oído interno, la percepción de éste y el grado de molestias asociadas dependen de modificaciones de redes cerebrales cognitivas y emocionales. En la presente revisión, se abordan los cambios que existen a nivel coclear, de tronco encefálico, tálamo y la extensa red cerebral que dan cuenta del tinnitus, discutiendo como esta nueva conceptualización tiene importantes implicancias clínicas, permitiendo una mejor comprensión de los síntomas asociados al tinnitus, sus comorbilidades, y el desarrollo de nuevas estrategias terapéuticas.
An Abbreviated Diagnostic Maneuver for Posterior Benign Positional Paroxysmal Vertigo
Frontiers in Neurology: Neuro-otology
Introduction: Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) secondary to canalolithiasis of the posterior semicircular canal is perhaps the most frequent cause of vertigo and dizziness. One of its properties is a high response rate to canalith repositioning maneuvers. However, delays in the diagnosis and treatment of this entity can range from days to years, depending on the setting. Here, we present an abbreviated variation of the Dix–Hallpike maneuver, which can be used to diagnose this disease. It is similar to the standard maneuver but can be performed without an examination bed/table and requires only a backed chair (a difference that we feel is very important in settings where a clinical bed/table is not readily available).
Methods: A diagnostic assessment study was conducted in 163 patients who presented with vertigo or dizziness.
Results: The abbreviated test had fairly good sensitivity (80%) and high specificity (95%) for diagnosing posterior BPPV.
Discussion: This new diagnostic maneuver may serve as a screening procedure for quickly identifying this pathology. This will allow patients to be more directly treated, without requiring unnecessary referrals or full vestibular testing, and will be especially useful in primary care settings or heavily overloaded otolaryngology or neurology departments.